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اوقات شرعی
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«رعایت چند دقیقه جهت احتیاط الزامی می باشد.»
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مقالات
امام رضا(ع) آیت حق
مسلمانان جهان درسال 148 هـ ق، هدیه ای بزرگ و الهی را دریافت نمودند و آن میلاد هشتمین حجت خدا بود، نام مبارکش علی، لقب مشهور آن حضرت، رضا و کنیه معروف ایشان، ابوالحسن است. پدر بزرگوارش، امام موسی بن جعفر(ع)، هفتمین امام شیعیان و مادر آن حضرت بانویی پاکدامن و پرهیزکار به نام تکتم که بعدها طاهره نامیده شد. همسر مکرمه حضرت رضا علیه السلام اُمّ ولًد مادر امام جواد (ع) است.
نسب امام رضا(ع)
او علی بن موسی بن جعفر بن محمد بن علی بن الحسین بن علی ابی طالب(ع) هشتمین امام اهل بیت است، که در مدینه متولد شده، و در طوس وفات یافته است.
ولادت و شهادت امام رضا(ع)
درتعیین ماه و سال تولد آن حضرت، اختلاف زیادی وجود دارد، همچنان که در ماه و سال شهادت آن امام بزرگوار نیز اختلاف است، و تفاوت این اقوال هم کم نیست، و در برخی از آنها از پنج سال بیشتر است، و چون آنچه در این باره گفته اند، درهم و آمیخته است، و تعیین قول صحیح دشوار می باشد، لذا بدون این که یکی از این اقوال را اختیار و در این جا ذکر کنیم، همه آنها را از نظر خوانندگان می گذرانیم، زیرا در بررسی و استقصای قول صحیح، و اقامه دلیل برای اثبات صحّت آن، فایده مهمّی مترتب نیست.
تولّد آن حضرت درمدینه در روز پنجشنبه یا جمعه 11 ذی الحجّه، یا ذی القعده، یا ربیع الاول سال 148 یا 153 هـ اتفاق افتاده است.
درتعیین ماه و سال شهادت آن حضرت، اختلاف زیادی وجود دارد. شهادت آن بزرگوار، آخر ماه صفر، و به ظن قوی قول شیخ صدوق که وفات آن امام را درسال 203 ذکر کرده است، و این همان سالی است، که مأمون به سوی عراق رهسپار شده است، و این که وفات آن حضرت سال206 بوده، قطعاً صحیح نیست زیرا مأمون در سال 204 وارد بغداد شده، و مسلم است که وفات امام(ع) درهنگامی واقع شده که او راهی سفر بغداد بوده است.
مادر امام رضا(ع)
در مورد نام مادر امام هشتم(ع) اختلاف بسیاری است، گفته شده که نام مادر آن حضرت، خیزران بوده است و برخی أروی گفته اند، که ملقب به شقراء نوبیه بوده است، و بعضی نام مادرش را نجمه دانسته اند، که کنیه اش ام البنین بوده است و برخی سکن نوبیه گفته اند، و نیز گروهی نام مادر آن حضرت را تکتم نوشته اند، و شاید این دسته به آنچه در شعر یکی از مدیحه سرایان آن حضرت آمده است، استناد جسته اند:
ألا إن خیر الناس نفساً و والداً و رهطاً و أجداداً، علی المعظم
اتتنا به للعلم و الحلم ثامناً إماماً یؤدی حجه الله (تکتم)
فرزندان امام رضا(ع)
در شماره و اسامی فرزندان امام(ع) نیز اختلاف است، گروهی آنها را پنج تن پسر و یک دختر نوشته اند، به نامهای محمد قانع، حسن، جعفر، ابراهیم، حسین و عایشه.
سبط بن جوزی در تذکره الخواص، آنان را چهار تن، که با حذف حسین، به شرحی که ذکر شده نام برده است، اما شیخ مفید براین باور است، که امام هشتم(ع) را، فرزندی جز امام محمد جواد(ع) نبوده است، و ابن شهرآشوب و طبرسی در اعلام الوری، نیز بر همین اعتقاد می باشند، و اما درکتاب العدد القویه تعداد فرزندان آن حضرت دو فرزند پسر، به نامهای محمد و موسی، ذکر شده است و آنچه درکتاب قرب الاسناد آمده است، این قول را تقویت می کند، و آن این است که بزنطی به امام هشتم (ع) عرض کرد، درچند سال پیش پرسیدم که جانشین شما کیست؟ فرمودید فرزندم، و در آن روز فرزند نداشتید، و اکنون خداوند به شما دو فرزند عطا فرموده است، کدام یک از این دو جانشین شماست؟ در عیون اخبار الرضا آمده که امام دختری به نام فاطمه داشته است.
اکنون ما در این صدد نیستیم، که دقیقاً شماره و نام فرزندان آن حضرت را، بررسی و تعیین کنیم، ولی نظر شیخ مفید را که ذکر شد ترجیح می دهیم، و آنچه از نظر ما محقق است این است که امام هشتم(ع) فرزندی جز امام محمد جواد(ع) نداشته، و آنچه غیر از این گفته شده، به ثبوت نرسیده است، و خداوند به حقیقت حال داناتر است.

Do the tunes produced by the kettle-drums  and the clarions have a special meaning?
Yes, they do. The clarions’ sound has special meanings. They are as follows:


Sulṭāne Dunyā Wa Uqbā - ‘Ali Ibn-e- Musā Ar-Riḍā
(The king of this world and the Hearafter - ‘Ali the son of  Musā– al- Riḍā)
Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā
(Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā, Imām Riḍā)
Imām Riḍā -Gharib, Imām Riḍā -Gharib,
(Imām Riḍā - lonely - Imām Riḍā - lonely)
Mawlā, Mawlā, Mawlā- ‘Ali Ibne-Musā Ar-Riḍā
(O’my lord, O’my lord, O’my lord - ‘Ali the son of Musā-al-Riḍā)
Riḍā Jān, Riḍā Jān, Riḍā Jān
(Riḍā -my dear, Riḍā -my dear, Riḍā -my dear)
Ya Imām-e Gharib, Ya Imām Riḍā
(O, the lonely Imām, O, Imam Riḍā)
Riḍā Jān, Riḍā Jān, Riḍā Jān
(Riḍā -my dear, Riḍā -my dear, Riḍā -my dear)
Dawrān, Dawrān -e Imām Riḍā Ast – Dādrase beechāragān
(It is the reign of Imām Riḍā, the redresser of grievances)
Ay Dādrase Darmāndagān! Faryād ras!
(O, the helper of the helpless! Help us)
Yā Fattah! Yā Fattah!
(O’ the resolver of the difficulties! O’ the resolver of the difficulties! ).c

Suffah ceremony




    Every day after the m
orning and Isha prayers you see some Khoddam sitting round the Dār-us-salām portico and conducting Ṣuffah ceremony. They set candlesticks and book racks with the Qur'an on them before them and recite some verses of the holy Qur'an. Then each person recites a phrase of Khāje Naṣir’s Tawassul prayer. Of course not all of them recite it, rather only fourteen Khuddām who have memorized the holy Qur'an by heart do it. The other Khoddam  are attending there only to add to the glory of the  ceremony. You will see the head Khādim of the shift is sitting between those 14 Khoddam. At the end they collect the book racks and candlesticks ceremoniously and recite Sura al-Fātiḥa and al-Tawḥid for Imām Riḍā (A.S).c
Preface
It certainly is a pleasant task, and a beneficial one, to introduce the heavenly visage of the eighth bright star of the heaven of Imamate (divinely appointed leadership) and wilāyah (divine friendship and guardianship), Imam Riḍā(A.S) and to explain the decorum appropriate for a pilgrimage to visit his shrine (ziyārah), the spiritual rewards (thawāb) for making such a pilgrimage, what one should do when one is honored to enter the angelic court of the shrine, and to offer a selection of some authentic prayers to be recited there. The pleasure and benefits redouble, especially considering that some of the pilgrims have traveled hundreds of kilometers to kiss the threshold of Imam Riḍā(A.S) and to renew their covenant (Ahd) with that pure descendant of the Apostle of God(S.A.W) They have come to wash away the dust on the mirror of their hearts with the tears of eagerness and to clean the dirt of their sins by repenting in the presence of God, the Most Kind and the Forgiving. They have come to engage in praising God with hearts full of certainty, gnosis, serenity and peace.c
In Islam, going on a journey is an advisable task. It is considered a key to good health and a motivating factor for acquiring .  This is by no means incompatible with the weariness and hardships that come to pass on a journey (this point is indicated in some narrations (hadith)), because for all the bitterness and difficulty, the good results and advantages of a journey outweigh its trouble, especially when it is performed for the purpose of paying a visit to the Friends (awliyā) of God. c

The Purpose of Travel

People travel for various reasons. One may travel to perform the duty of hajj, jihad, pilgrimage to the Friends of God (awliyā), visiting relatives (Ṣilah rahim), emigration, or escaping from civil strife. Sometimes travel is for trade, education, gaining experience, helping others, or healthy recreation. The intentions for such journeys are sacred and honorable. However, sometimes travel is for an unlawful purpose, such as desertion of duty, performance of an unworthy deed or the commission of sin; and sometimes it is just to waste time or for the sake of diversions that ultimately lead to corruption and ruin.c
Pilgrimage to Imam Riḍā(A.S)
According to some narrations (hadith) going on a pilgrimage to the shrine of the eighth Imam 'Ali ibn Musa al-Riḍā(AS) brings an abundance of blessings, as reported in the following narrations.
Imam Jawad(AS) said, "God will forgive all of the sins of one who pays a visit to my father's grave, and paradise is his."  
Imam Ṣādiq(AS) said, "Whoever pays a visit to Imam Riḍā(A.S), it is as if he paid a visit to the Apostle of God."
Imam Jawad(A.S) said, "For he who makes a pilgrimage to my father, I guarantee heaven."
Imam Riza(A.S) said, "On the Day of Resurrection, I will save whoever has made a pilgrimage to me, at three levels,  at the scale (Mizan), at the bridge (Sirat), and when he is given the record of his deeds"  
'Abd al-Salam al-Harawi reported that Imam Riḍā(AS) said "Soon Tus will become a site of
the coming and going of the Shiah and my pilgrims. Know that he who visits me at Tus, which is located far from my homeland, will be with me and at my level on the Day of Resurrection, while his sins will be forgiven."  
It is narrated from Imam 'Ali al-Naqi(A.S), "Whoever has a need and makes a pilgrimage to the grave of my grandfather Imam Riza(AS) at Tus, after performing the major ablution (ghusl), and says a two-Rak'ah prayer above his head, and during the qunoot of the prayer asks for what he needs, verily God will grant his request unless he desires to commit a sin or to break off the ties of relationship(Silah Rahim). Surely the place of his grave is one of the tracts of heaven". c
Tawassul (Recourse)

God the Almighty has erected the order of creation through instruments and intermediary means. Rain falls by means of vapor, clouds, and wind. God talked to His Apostle through Gabriel.  In the Noble Qur 'an, God the Glorious introduces the angels as the intermediaries for His management of affairs.  And even for presenting one's requests to the Lord, seeking an intermediary is worthwhile, as God Himself states: (and seek means of nearness to Him).  
What is meant by recourse (tawassul) is resorting to the special friends of God, the awliyā, in requesting the fulfillment of one's needs from God the Almighty.
Imam 'Alil(A.S) said, "We are the means of connection between the people and God."  
Hadrat Zahra(S.A) also said, "We are the channel of connection between creatures and the Creator. "
Many ahadith have been narrated in this regard."  
Not only resorting to the pure, holy, and sincere special Friends (awliyā) of God, but commemorating and honoring blessed days are also helpful. Imam Sajjad(A.S) swore to God by the truth of the month of Ramadan."  Imam Husayn(A.S) swore to God by the truth of the night of 'Arafah. The Qur'an was sent down on the Grand night, the Night of Qadr, which is a blessed night considered to be even better than one thousand months.  
Imam Baqir(A.S) said, "The sins will be forgiven of one who spends the Night of Qadr awake in worship."  
We read in the Qur'an:
It has been written in the Quran, (and they ask forgiveness for those on earth .. .)  that is, the angels who are honored by God are to ask forgiveness for the people residing on the earth.
That which is wrong and incorrect is resorting to a stone, wood, fire, stars and so on. Without any doubt, the case of the special Friends (awliyā) of God is different from that of inanimate, lifeless objects. We read in the Qur'an that the prophet Jacob rubbed Joseph's shirt on his blind eyes and they were healed.  Although the shirt was nothing but a piece of cloth, because it was connected with the pure body of Joseph for some time, it came to have a curative effect. c
The Construction of Domes and Courts

According to the Glorious Qur'an building a mosque above the tomb of godly people is perrnissible.  A dome and court indicates that the person resting in that sacred place was committed to tawhid.
In this regard it has been written in the Sunan of Abi-Dawud: "When 'Uthman ibn Maz'un passed away, his corpse was buried .... The Prophet(S.A.W) ordered a man to bring him a stone, but the man was not able to carry it. The Prophet(S.A.W) stood up, rolled up his sleeves, ... brought the stone, and placed it at the head of the grave. Then he said, "I set this here as a sign of my brother's grave. I will bury any of my family who dies beside him.”
It is clear that building sanctuaries and domes above the pure graves of the Immaculate Ones(S.A) is a way of honoring and glorifying those proofs of God who were martyred after a lifetime of struggle to guide and lead the people. In this way the memory of those religious leaders is kept alive. c
The only reason we kiss the doors of the haram or the holy burial chamber or we believe they arc sacred is to respect the proof of God, the Immaculate Imam(A.S). Their sanctity is due to the Imām’s holiness and blessings. It is just like kissing the cover of a Qur 'an. Due to the holiness of the Qur'an the paper on which the words of the Qur’an  have been written or the leather that has been used as the cover of a Qur’an  obtain holiness. If the same leather had been used as a shoe or clothes, it would never have gained such sanctity.c